Cancer Institute A national cancer institute
designated cancer center

If you are thinking of entering a clinical trial...

To search for clinical trials visit: http://cancer.stanford.edu/trials ; email ccto-office@stanford.edu ; or call 650-498-7061.

Are You Eligible for a Clinical Trial?
What Trials Are Available for Your Type of Cancer?
What Is Best for You?
What Are Important Questions To Ask About a Clinical Trial?
What Is Informed Consent?
What Is It Like To Be a Patient in a Clinical Trial?
Can You Leave a Trial at Any Time?
What Protection Do You Have as a Patient in a Clinical Trial?
Who serves on Stanford's Institutional Review Board (IRB)?
What Can Help You Learn If a Trial Is Sound and Well Run?
What Kinds of Clinical Trials Are There?
How Are Trials Divided Into Phases?
How Are Clinical Trials Conducted?
What Advances Have Come Out of Stanford's Clinical Trial Program?


Are You Eligible for a Clinical Trial?

Every clinical trial is designed to answer a set of research questions. If you fit the guidelines for a trial, you may be eligible to take part. Each study enrolls patients with certain types and stages of cancer and certain health status. A study that involves two or more treatments can yield reliable answers only if all the patient cases are the same, so they can be compared with each other.

Before you and your physician make a decision about your treatment (whether it is in a clinical trial or not), your type of cancer will be diagnosed and "staged." Staging tells how far the disease has spread. Deciding on treatment depends on many things, including the stage of the disease and your general health. You would most likely be referred to a trial by your own doctor or by a doctor who knows your case. Some patients find out about trials from other sources. In any case, you must have a reasonable understanding of your role in a research study and be freely willing to take part in it. Ask what you can expect if you take part in a trial.

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What Trials Are Available for Your Type of Cancer?

There are many ways to find out what your treatment choices are. Talk with your doctors and get the opinion of cancer specialists (oncologists). You should not be afraid to ask for a second opinion.

The Stanford Cancer Clinical Trials Directory is a searchable database of clinical trials conducted at Stanford, and the information it contains is available for free to the public. Use the directory to identify clinical trials you might want to participate in. You can email study details, to yourself or your physician if the patient, or to yourself, a fellow doctor, or the patient if a physician. We prefer that physicians recommend patients for studies, but patients are also welcome to inquire about specific studies.

Because contracts with some of our clinical trial sponsors prevent us from listing specific trial information on our web site, please contact the Stanford Cancer Clinical Trials Office at 650-498-7061 for additional information about our open clinical trials.

Another source of trial information is the Physician Data Query (PDQ) system supported by the National Cancer Institute. PDQ can give your doctor the latest information on clinical trials being offered around the country for each type and stage of cancer. This ready reference is kept up to date. Your doctor can check it from a medical library or personal computer.

The Cancer Information Service (CIS) is a third source of information. This program, also sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, answers cancer-related questions from the public, cancer patients and their families, and health professionals. If you have questions, call the toll-free number: 1-800-4-CANCER and you will be connected to the CIS office serving your area. Spanish-speaking CIS staff are also available at this number.

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What Is Best for You?

This is a big question. Finding answers and making decisions are often hard for a cancer patient. The diagnosis of cancer and deciding what to do about it can be overwhelming, and you may be confused and upset. It is important to discuss your options with medical experts including your own doctor and with those close to you. Your personal doctor, who may be your family doctor, and cancer specialists can counsel you about your choices for standard treatment or clinical trials.

Talk to them and ask questions about the problems you are facing. If you understand what is going on, you can help your doctor work with you more effectively. You may want to take a friend or relative along with you when you talk to your doctor about your case.

Take time to ask your questions and to discuss what you want to know. It may help you and your doctor if you plan what to ask and write questions down ahead of time. No question is foolish. Learn what is available to you. Find out your choices and the risks and benefits of each.

Each patient is different. You are an individual with individual needs, and your health is important. If you are a parent of a child with cancer, of course you have great concerns about making the best decision for your child's care.

As you decide about treatment, if it is in a clinical trial or not, remember that you are not alone. There are many people to help you doctors, nurses, social workers, clergy, your family, friends, and other patients. Although is it YOUR decision, they can help you think about it and decide what is best for you.

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What Are Important Questions To Ask About a Clinical Trial?

If you are thinking about taking part in a clinical trial, here are some important questions to ask:

*Costs are a major concern of patients and families. Different arrangements and policies exist at different institutions and, of course, insurance coverage varies. Patients should freely discuss what costs are involve their cases ahead of time. If you need financial aid, contact the hospital social services office, the Cancer Information Service, or the local American Cancer Society Chapter. They may be able to direct you to a source of help.

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What Is Informed Consent?

Informed consent, a key part of a good trial, is required in studies that are federally regulated or funded as well as by many state laws. Informed consent means that as a patient, you are given information so you can understand what is involved in a trial, including its potential benefits and risks, and then decide freely to take part in it or not. The nature of the treatment is explained by the doctors and nurses in the trial. You are given an informed consent form to read and consider carefully. Ask any questions you may have. Then, if you agree to take part, you can sign the form. Of course, you can also refuse.

The informed consent process is an ongoing process. If you enter a trial, you will continue to receive any new information about your treatment that may affect your willingness to stay in the trial. Signing a consent form does not bind you to the study. You can still choose to leave the study at any time.

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What Is It Like To Be a Patient in a Clinical Trial?

Whether cancer patients are in a research study or not, they face a new world of medical terms and procedures. For some people, myths and fears of "experimentation" or of being a "guinea pig" come with the idea of clinical trials. And, surely, there are fears of the unknown.

Understanding what is involved can ease some of your anxieties. Patients in a clinical trial, for example, receive their care in the same places that standard treatments are given-at cancer centers, hospitals, clinics, or doctors' offices.

Because a growing number of cancer specialists are now in private practice in the community, most cancer care can be given in an area near your home. Doctors, nurses, social workers and other health professionals from many different specialties may help care for you. They are working together for your good. There is consideration for your privacy and well-being.

If you join a research study, you will be watched closely and data on your case will be carefully recorded. You may receive more examinations and tests than are usually given. (These are to follow your progress as well as to collect study data.) Of course, tests can carry certain risks and benefits or discomforts of their own. Although they can be inconvenient, these tests can assure an extra ounce of observation along the way.

During the course of a study, if it is clear that a treatment is not in your best interest, you will be removed from the study and you can discuss other options with your physician.

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Can You Leave a Trial at Any Time?

Yes. Just as you can refuse to join a study, you may leave a study at any time. Your rights as an individual do not change because you are a patient in a clinical trial. You may choose to take part or not, and you can always change your mind later, even after you enter a trial.

You may also refuse to take part in any aspect of the research. If you have questions at any time about any part of the study, be sure to ask your doctors. If you are not satisfied with the answers, you may consider leaving the study. If you decide to leave, it will not be held against you. You can freely discuss other possible treatments and care with your doctors and nurses.

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What Protection Do You Have as a Patient in a Clinical Trial?

The ethical and legal codes that govern medical practice apply to clinical trials. In addition, most clinical research is federally regulated or federally funded (at least in part), with built-in safeguards to protect patients. These safeguards include regular review of the protocol (the study plans) and the progress of each study by researchers at other places.

For example, federally funded and federally regulated clinical trials must first be approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) located at the institution where the study is to take place. IRBs, designed to protect patients, are made up of scientists, doctors, clergy and other people from the local community. An IRB reviews a study to see that it is well designed with safeguards for patients and that the risks are reasonable in relation to the potential benefits.

Federally supported or regulated studies also go through reviews by a government agency such as the National Cancer Institute*, which sponsors and monitors many trials around the country.

Any well run clinical trial, whether federally supported or not, is carefully reviewed for medical ethics, patient safety, and scientific merit by the research institution. Every study should provide for monitoring the data and the safety of patients on an ongoing basis.

As discussed earlier, informed consent is also an important process that helps to protect patients.

After patients join a clinical trial and it progresses, the doctors report the results of the trial to scientific meetings, to medical journals whose articles are approved by experts, and to various government agencies.

*The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is the Federal Government's chief agency for cancer research. Located at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, the Institute funds cancer research across the country and conducts research at its own facilities. For information about NCI trials, call: 1-800-4-CANCER.

Who serves on Stanford's Institutional Review Board (IRB)?

Stanford has eight IRBs, also called the Administrative Panels on Human Subjects in Research. They oversee research for Stanford University, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital, the Veterans Administration Palo Alto Health Care Services (VAPAHCS) and the Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education (PAIRE).

The goal of the IRBs is to protect human research participants by ensuring that:

IRB membership is comprised of Stanford University faculty, students, VAPAHCS representatives, and community members, including those with a non-scientific background, and people not affiliated with the institutions above.

For more information, visit the Humans Subjects Research and IRB website.

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What Can Help You Learn If a Trial Is Sound and Well Run?

Here are some important questions for you to ask to find out if a study is well run:

For your own protection, be sure to get satisfactory answers to these questions before you agree to take part.

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What Kinds of Clinical Trials Are There?

Most cancer clinical trials deal with new treatments. These treatments often involve surgery, radiation therapy (the use of x-rays, neutrons or other types of cell-destroying radiation), and chemotherapy (the use of anticancer drugs). Alone, or in combination, these types of treatments can cure many cancer patients and prolong the lives of many others. A fairly new area of cancer treatment is biological therapy, which involves the use of biologicals (substances produced by the body's own cells) and biological response modifiers (substances that affect the body's natural defense systems against disease).

According to the National Cancer Institute, the different types of cancer clinical trials include:

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How Are Trials Divided Into Phases?

Clinical trials are carried out in phases, each designed to find out certain information. Patients may be eligible for studies in different phases depending on their general condition and the type and stage of their cancer. More patients take part in the later phases of studies than in the earlier ones.

In a Phase I study, a new research treatment is given to a small number of patients. The researchers must find the best way to give a new treatment and how much of it can be given safely. They watch carefully for any harmful side effects. The research treatment has been well tested in laboratory and animal studies but no one knows how patients will react. Phase I studies may involve significant risks for this reason. They are offered only to patients whose cancer has spread and who would not be helped by other known treatments. Phase I treatments may produce anticancer effects, and some patients have been helped by these treatments.

Phase II studies determine the effect of a research treatment on various types of cancer. Each new phase of a clinical trial depends on and builds on information from an earlier phase. If a treatment has shown activity against cancer in Phase II, it moves to Phase III. Here it is compared with standard treatment to see which is more effective. Often researchers use standard therapy as the base to design new, hopefully better treatments. Then in Phase III, the new treatment is directly compared to the old one. In Phase IV studies, the new research treatment becomes part of standard treatment in patient care. For example, a new drug that has been found effective in a clinical trial may then be used together with other effective drugs or with surgery and/or radiation therapy.

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How Are Clinical Trials Conducted?

The doctors who conduct a clinical trial follow a carefully designed treatment plan called a "protocol." This spells out what will be done and why. Studies are planned to safeguard the medical and psychological health of patients as well as to answer research questions.

Some clinical trials test one research treatment in one group of patients. Other trials compare two or more treatments in separate groups of patients who are similar in certain ways such as the extent of their disease. This way, the treatment groups are alike, and the results from each can validly be compared.

One of the groups may receive standard (the most accepted) treatment so the new treatments can be directly compared to it. The group receiving the standard treatment is called the "control" group. For example, one group of patients (the control group) may receive the usual surgical treatment for a certain cancer, while another patient group with the same type of cancer may receive surgery plus radiation therapy to see if this improves disease control.

Sometimes, no standard treatment yet exists for certain cancer patients. In drug studies for such cases, one group of patients might receive a new drug and the control group, none. But no patient is placed in a control group without treatment if there is any known treatment that would benefit that patient. The control group is followed as often and carefully as the "treatment" group.

One of the ways to prevent the bias of a patient or doctor from influencing study results is "randomization." If a patient agrees to be randomized, this means he or she is selected by chance to be in one group or another. The researchers do not know which treatment is best. From what is known at the time, any one of the treatments chosen could be of equal benefit to the patient.

If the treatment in a trial is not helping the patient, the patient's doctor can decide to take him or her out of the study. Of course, the patient can decide to leave, as well, and still receive other available care. There are regular reviews of the results of a trial and the information is shared. This is important, because if a treatment is found to be too harmful or not effective, it is stopped. Also, when there is firm evidence that one method is better than the others in a study, the trial is stopped and all patients in the trial are given the benefit of the new information. Such information may help present and future patients.

Throughout a clinical study, a patient's personal doctor will be kept informed of the patient's progress. Patients are encouraged to maintain contact with their referring doctors.

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What Advances Have Come Out of Stanford's Clinical Trial Program?

Stanford has made a number of significant contributions to advancing cancer treatment, including:

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