Cancer Institute A national cancer institute
designated cancer center

Linda Boxer, MD, PhD

Publication Details

  • Protein/DNA arrays identify nitric oxide-regulated cis-element and trans-factor activities some of which govern neuroblastoma cell viability NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH Dhakshinamoorthy, S., Sridharan, S. R., Li, L., Ng, P. Y., Boxer, L. M., Porter, A. G. 2007; 35 (16): 5439-5451


    Toxic nitric oxide (NO) levels can regulate gene expression. Using a novel protein/DNA array, we show that toxic NO levels regulate the binding of trans-factors to various cis-elements in neuroblastoma cells, including CRE and those recognized by the transcription factors AP1, AP2, Brn-3a, EGR, E2F1 and SP1. Functionality of some of the cis-elements was confirmed by electro mobility shift and reporter assays. Interestingly, CREB, AP-1, Brn-3a, EGR and E2F1 can control mammalian cell viability. NO induced the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and its mRNA prior to the onset of death of 30-60% of the cells. Promoter analysis of the bcl-2 gene confirmed the involvement of a CRE in NO-dependent bcl-2 transcription. Neuroblastoma cells over-expressing bcl-2 became much more resistant to NO-induced apoptosis; conversely, Bcl-2 knockdown cells were rendered markedly more sensitive to NO. Together these results suggest that Bcl-2 counteracts NO-induced apoptosis in a fraction of the cell population. Thus, NO stimulates the binding of many trans-factors to their cognate cis-elements, some of which can regulate cell viability through transcriptional activation of target genes. Our results emphasize that a DNA/protein array approach can reveal novel, global transcription factor activities stimulated by cell death-regulating molecules.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkm594

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250683300017

    View details for PubMedID 17702766

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