Cancer Institute A national cancer institute
designated cancer center

Thymoma and Thymic Cancer Staging

 Stanford physicians use two staging systems to provide the most accurate prognosis for each tumor.

There are several staging systems for thymoma, but the most widely used are the Masaoka system and the World Health Organization (WHO) system.  The Masaoka system is based on degree of invasion of the capsule around the tumor and of surrounding structures; the WHO system is based upon the appearance of the cells that make up the tumor under the microscope. 

At the Stanford Cancer Center, our physicians combine the two systems to provide the best estimate of prognosis for each individual tumor, and allow us to recommend when preoperative and postoperative treatments might be advantageous.

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